Hedging is a type of language use which ‘protects’ your claims.

Using language with a suitable amount of caution can protect your claims from being easily dismissed. It can also help to point the known degree of certainty we now have in relation to the data or support.

Compare the next two texts that are short (A) and (B). You will notice that even though the two texts are, in essence, saying the thing that is same (B) has an important quantity of extra language around the claim. A large level of this language is performing the purpose of ‘hedging’.

Compare the next two short texts, (A) and (B). How many differences do you see into the text that is second? What’s the function/effect/purpose of every difference?

You shall probably observe that (B) is more ‘academic’, but it is important to comprehend why.

(A) Extensive reading helps students to enhance their vocabulary.

(B) Research conducted by Yen (2005) generally seems to indicate that, for a substantial proportion of students, extensive reading may play a role in an improvement in their active vocabulary. Yen’s (2005) study involved learners aged 15-16 within the UK, although it can be applicable to many other groups. However, the study involved an opt-in sample, which means the sample students may have been more ‘keen’, or more involved in reading already. It might essay writer be helpful to see perhaps the findings differ in a wider sample.

(please be aware that Yen (2005) is a fictional reference used only as one example).

The table below provides some examples of language to make use of when making knowledge claims.

Try to look for samples of hedging language in your own reading, to add to the table.

Phrases for Hedging

Language Function with Example Phrases

1) Quantifiers

a fraction
a minority/majority of
a proportion of
to some degree

2) Appearance

appears to
has the appearance of
is similar to
shares characteristics with
appears to stay line with

3) Possibility

has the possibility of
has the potential to
is able to

4) Frequency

tends to
has a tendency to

5) Comparatively

in an easier way than .
more simply than …
When compared to …

When you look at the context of …
…in certain situations…
Within some households…

7) Ev >Based on …
As indicated by …
According to …

8) Description in language

can be described as
could be considered to be
is sometimes labelled
can be equated to
the term can be used to mean
the term is oftentimes used to mention to
this may indicate that …
this may suggest that …

Language categories compiled and devised by Jane Blackwell

IOE Writing Centre Online

Self-access resources from the Academic Writing Centre at the UCL Institute of Education.

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Academic Centre that is writing Institute of Education

Essays often sound tough, however they are the easiest method to write a long answer.
In this lesson, we will have a look at simple tips to write one.


Start your answer, and list what you will about be writing

Talk about the ideas which will reply to your question


Re-write what your ideas are and say why they have been answered by you

Arguments, Keywords and Definitions

That we will use to describe what you do for essay writing structure before we start going through how an essay works, we need to go through three terms.
Argument = all of the points that are main are likely to write on in your essay.
Keywords = words which are important parts of the question
Definition = A one-sentence summary of the essay that is whole which write in your introduction.
We will go through some examples in a second.

Basic Introduction

To publish your introduction, follow these steps. Each one of these steps means you start a sentence that is new.

  • Rewrite the question using keywords, through the name of text(s) and author(s)
  • Write a one sentence answer (definition)
  • List most of the main points of your argument

Illustration of an Introduction

Are pigs in a position to fly? (Question)
Pigs aren’t able to fly. (Re-write of question)
they can’t fly because their bodies don’t allow them to. (Definition)
They are too heavy to float, they do not have wings or propellers, and they cannot control aircraft. (Main Points)

The body forms most of your essay.
This is the most part that is important of essay you write.
Within your body, you have to argue all of your points that are main explain why they answr fully your question.
Each main point must certanly be in a paragraph that is new.

Each main point must be in a different paragraph. Each paragraph must be put down like this:

  • Topic Sentence: a sentence that is short you repeat one main point from your own introduction.
  • Discussion: Explain why your main point is right and give reasoned explanations why.
  • Evidence: Proof that you get from a text, a quote, or a ‘fact’. It must prove that your particular answer is right.
  • Lead out: Finish the main point so you are able to go right to the next.

Exemplory case of a physical body Paragraph

Pigs are too heavy to float. (Topic Sentence)
Their large bodies and weight imply that they are not able to float, which is a proven way a creature can fly. To float a pig will have to be lighter than air. (discussion)
A pig weighs 200 kilograms, and due to this weight, it is not lighter than air. (Evidence)
that is why, a pig struggles to float and cannot fly. (Lead out)

Conclusion of Essay Writing Structure

A conclusion is a short summary of everything you have written in your body paragraph.
It will ‘tie’ everything together.

As pigs aren’t able to float, they do have wings and cannot control aircraft, they not able to go into the air, and therefore cannot fly.

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